John Duffield, PhD, is currently an emeritus Research Professor in the Department of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Montana, where he taught from 1974-1996. He is also the owner of a natural resource economics research firm, Bioeconomics, Inc., which he founded in 1989. John was born and raised in Montana and educated in public schools at Mystic Lake and Thompson Falls. He has a B.A. in economics from Northwestern University and a Yale PhD in economics. Over the last 45 years John has participated in a wide range of environmental and natural resource issues including air pollution standards, instream flow, endangered species, hunting and fishing values, fair market values for state school trust lands, and public lands management. John has participated in a number of nationally significant natural resource damage cases including serving as the economic expert for the Alaska Native Class in the Exxon Valdez oil spill case. Most recently John was the lead economist for the State of Alabama in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill case.