- Development trends in the wildland-urban interface, coupled with increasing wildfire size and frequency, put many communities at risk from wildfire, as evidenced by the devastating 2017 wildfire season.
- Eight new communities have joined the Community Planning Assistance for Wildfire (CPAW) program for 2018 to reduce their risk through improved land use planning.
- CPAW provides a variety of assistance to communities, including land use planning support and recommendations, training and capacity building, risk assessments, and specialized research and science.
Costs and Risks to Communities from Wildfires Growing Rapidly
The deadly and costly 2017 U.S. wildfire season shows that two trends that are on a collision course: cities are growing in population and expanse while wildfires are increasing in size and frequency, resulting in more communities being affected by wildfire.
This year was the most expensive on record for federal firefighting costs, surpassing $2 billion and causing billions more in damages, destroying thousands of homes, and causing crises in several state budgets.
CPAW: Communities Reduce Wildfire Risk Through Land Use Planning
The rapid pace of new development in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), where more than half of all new homes are constructed, puts lives and property directly in the path of danger. Better land use planning can reduce the consequences of wildfire by helping communities identify where and how to build safely.
To help communities improve land use planning strategies for wildfire, Headwaters Economics and Wildfire Planning International created the Community Planning Assistance for Wildfire (CPAW) program in 2015.
CPAW provides communities with multi-disciplinary teams, which include land use planners, foresters, researchers and policy analysts, to provide customized, technical land use planning assistance. Teams collaborate with communities to provide assistance, including land use planning support and recommendations, training and capacity building, risk assessments, and specialized research and science.
Communities are selected through a competitive process to participate in CPAW. Selected communities receive customized assistance over the course of one year. For 2018, eight new communities were selected:
• Deadwood, South Dakota
• Los Alamos, New Mexico
• Mammoth Lakes, California
• Pigeon Forge, Tennessee
• San Luis Valley, Colorado
• Sisters, Oregon
• Township of Ocean, New Jersey
• Wasco County, Oregon
They join 18 communities already participating in the CPAW program:
• Ashland, Oregon
• Austin, Texas
• Bemidji, Minnesota
• Bend, Oregon
• Boise, Idaho
• Boulder County, Colorado
• City of Chelan, Washington
• Chelan County, Washington,
• Flagstaff, Arizona
• Huerfano County, Colorado
• Lewis & Clark County, Montana
• Missoula County, Montana
• Park County, Montana
• San Diego, California
• Santa Fe, New Mexico
• Summit County, Colorado
• Taos County, New Mexico
• Wenatchee, Washington
Examples of Land Use Tools to Help Communities Reduce Wildfire Risk
Land use planning tools to reduce wildfire risk are diverse and can help communities design where to allow development, what building materials will help keep people safe, and what infrastructures is needed to safely respond when disasters strike.
For example, subdivision design standards in wildfire-prone areas may require risk reduction features such as minimum road widths, secondary access, and adequate water supply.
Building codes for structures in the wildland-urban interface may require ignition-resistant construction materials, and landscaping regulations may require landowners to manage flammable vegetation within a certain distance of structures.
Recommendations developed through CPAW are tailored to each community’s unique conditions including wildfire risk, development trends, and regulatory framework. Recommendations are developed after extensive review of community documents, ongoing stakeholder engagement, and multiple on-site assessments.
CPAW also works brings together land use planners and fire personnel from at-risk communities for peer-to-peer learning through several workshops and trainings each year.
Implementation of recommendations is voluntary and under the authority of the local jurisdiction. All CPAW services come at no cost to the community. CPAW is funded through cooperative agreements with the U.S. Forest Service, the LOR Foundation, and other private foundations.
As risk is amplified by the converging forces of increasing wildfires and growing communities expanding into the wildland-urban interface, the challenge of living safely increases. Land use planning tools are necessary and effective at reducing risk and cost.