This 2014 study compares data from Instagram, Twitter, and Flickr to assess how official visitation statistics and social media predictions of visitation compare in 56 national parks in Finland and South Africa. Social-media-based visitor estimates match relatively well with the official visitor counts, although Instagram outperformed Twitter and Flickr. After the results were modeled, national […]
This study compares three social media platforms (Panoramio, Flickr, and Instagram) and their applicability for mapping and quantifying landscape values at a continental scale through multiple models. The authors assume that landscape values increase as posts about the areas increase, interpreting spatial concentrations of posts as indicators of higher landscape values derived from aesthetic enjoyment […]
This study evaluates mountain bike use in five recreational areas using GPSies data at a regional scale in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA) in Portugal. Results indicate that 98% of users were from Portugal and 60.57% of the rides were going to at least one of the protected and recreational areas (P&RAs) studied. 80.77% of […]
This study analyzes the reliability of Global Navigation Satellite System-based (GNSS) Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) using three platforms: GPSies, Outdooractive, and Komoot. These data sources are compared with automatic visitor counters to evaluate the spatial distribution of hikers in Germany’s Bavarian Forest National Park. In a comparison of all three platforms, GPSies and Outdooractive had […]
This study analyzes data from Twitter, Flickr, and Instagram to assess visitation at 10 urban and peri-urban Swiss National Forest Inventory sites and evaluates recreational models on a national scale. Social media text was analyzed and a Flickr-based model and Twitter-based model were compared with a pre-existing potential recreation demand (PRD) model to estimate recreational […]
This study measures use and perceptions of eight urban parks in Bucharest, Romania, using Instagram posts and Google reviews during the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of posts and reviews was found to be correlated with the initial lockdown, as both on average decreased during March, April, and May, and increased after June as restrictions lessened […]
This study analyzes how different data collection methods can support local recreation planning. Data is compared on current land use (land already used by outdoor recreationists) and the potential use (land that is not used by outdoor recreationists) through participatory mapping, free listing, photo ranking, and analysis of social media data. Local planners were interviewed […]
This study uses social media to measure tourism levels and spatial variation in The Bahamas Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and Andros Island. Social media data from Flickr was found to be well correlated with visitor counts from entrance surveys. Annual visitation to The Bahamas MPAs was estimated to be an average of 383,000 visitor days. […]
This study reviews the scientific literature of studies using social media to measure visitation patterns and visitors’ experiences in parks and outdoor recreational areas. The majority of studies they reviewed (79%) used a single social media platform, with Flickr being the most common. The authors provide five “best practices” which are a list of recommendations […]
In this study, Flickr is used to evaluate the perception and attitudes of day-use and multi-day adventure-based visitors on Mount Aconcagua in Argentina. The study aims to determine the relative popularity of different parts of the park and how the Flickr image content differs between the easily accessible day-use areas and more remote areas of […]
This study assesses the results from a 2008 survey administered to businesses located near the Otago Central Rail Trail (OCRT) in New Zealand and compares results to a 2005 survey. Data was collected on types of businesses, annual revenue, and business perceptions of the trail. On the OCRT, cyclists were reported to be the most […]
This study assesses outdoor recreation opportunities focusing on green space accessibility for different demographic groups in the Oslo metropolitan area in Norway. Overall, most people prefer large wooded green areas, high tree density, and water presence. Migrants and low-income households were found to have relatively less access to places for daily recreation.
This paper demonstrates how geolocated social media images can be used for monitoring tourism levels in remote mountains. Researchers identified visitor hotspots and seasonal variations using Flickr photos. Though this methodology has limitations, it serves as a useful approach to manage tourism in a remote, protected natural area where resources are limited.
The authors apply a GIS spatial analysis using social media data to quantify public perspectives of recreational ecosystem services (RESs) or green spaces in Beijing, China. This megacity-scale study was conducted using data from the Little Red Book (LRB) which has been referred to as “China’s Instagram.” Though the authors acknowledge there are some limitations […]
In Rörbäcksnäs, Sweden, researchers found that social information such as collective action and descriptive norms in signage posted on the main mountain biking trailhead encouraged higher donation amounts and participation rates from mountain bikers. Descriptive norms included listing the donation amount from mountain bikers in recent weeks on the signage. Through the survey, researchers found […]
The authors reviewed 33 academic and practitioner studies on mountain bike tourism and found inconsistencies in the methodology for measuring economic impacts. They critique the existing literature and make recommendations to improve variable instruments and analysis. The authors claim more coherent and consistent variables analyses will better support community advocates in their push for the […]
This large study of U.K. residents finds that those who walk or bike to work have significantly lower incidence of and mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease. Those who incorporate cycling into their commute had the greatest reduction in risk of disease incidence and mortality.
In this large-scale study of participants in a formal walking program in the U.K., researchers find that participants in nature-based group walks are less likely to report experiencing depression, perceived stress, and negative affect, and report greater overall mental well-being. By comparing a large sample of participants and non-participants over time, the authors overcome some inherent challenges in measuring the effectiveness of these types of programs.
Research has established that low-income people tend to have higher mortality rates than high-income residents. This study across all of England demonstrates that this gap in mortality rate is about half the size in areas with the most green space compared to areas with the least green space.
Combining data from 10 U.K. studies, researchers demonstrated statistically significant improvements in self-esteem and mood after participants exercised outside in a natural setting. Although all cohorts and types of settings experienced improvements, the greatest gains are visible after short duration, light exercise, and among the mentally ill.